(2) No citizen shall, on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, descent, place of birth, residence or
any of them, be ineligible for, or discriminated against in respect of, any employment or office under the
(3) Nothing in this article shall prevent Parliament from making any law prescribing, in regard to a
class or classes of employment or appointment to an office under the Government of, or any local or other
authority within, a State or Union territory, any requirement as to residence within that State or Union
territory prior to such employment or appointment.
(4) Nothing in this article shall prevent the State from making any provision for the reservation of
appointments or posts in favour of any backward class of citizens which, in the opinion of the State, is not
adequately represented in the services under the State.
(4A) Nothing in this article shall prevent the State from making any provision for reservation in
matters of promotion, with consequential seniority, to any class or classes of posts in the services under
the State in favour of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes which, in the opinion of the State,
are not adequately represented in the services under the State.
(4B) Nothing in this article shall prevent the State from considering any unfilled vacancies of a year
which are reserved for being filled up in that year in accordance with any provision for reservation made
under clause (4) or clause (4A) as a separate class of vacancies to be filled up in any succeeding year or
years and such class of vacancies shall not be considered together with the vacancies of the year in which
they are being filled up for determining the ceiling of fifty per cent. reservation on total number of
vacancies of that year.
(5) Nothing in this article shall affect the operation of any law which provides that the incumbent of
an office in connection with the affairs of any religious or denominational institution or any member of
the governing body thereof shall be a person professing a particular religion or belonging to a particular
17. Abolition of Untouchability.—―Untouchability‖ is abolished and its practice in any form is
forbidden. The enforcement of any disability arising out of ―Untouchability‖ shall be an offence
punishable in accordance with law.
18. Abolition of titles.—(1) No title, not being a military or academic distinction, shall be conferred
by the State.
(2) No citizen of India shall accept any title from any foreign State.
(3) No person who is not a citizen of India shall, while he holds any office of profit or trust under the
State, accept without the consent of the President any title from any foreign State.
(4) No person holding any office of profit or trust under the State shall, without the consent of the
President, accept any present, emolument, or office of any kind from or under any foreign State.
Right to Freedom
19. Protection of certain rights regarding freedom of speech, etc.—(1) All citizens shall have the
(a) to freedom of speech and expression;
(b) to assemble peaceably and without arms;
(c) to form associations or unions 1[or co-operative societies];
(d) to move freely throughout the territory of India;
(e) to reside and settle in any part of the territory of India; and
1. Ins. by the Constitution (Ninety-seventh Amendment) Act, 2011, s. 2 (w.e.f. 15-2-2012).