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(g) to practise any profession, or to carry on any occupation, trade or business.
(2) Nothing in sub-clause (a) of clause (1) shall affect the operation of any existing law, or prevent
the State from making any law, in so far as such law imposes reasonable restrictions on the exercise of the
right conferred by the said sub-clause in the interests of the sovereignty and integrity of India, the security
of the State, friendly relations with foreign States, public order, decency or morality, or in relation to
contempt of court, defamation or incitement to an offence.
(3) Nothing in sub-clause (b) of the said clause shall affect the operation of any existing law in so far
as it imposes, or prevent the State from making any law imposing, in the interests of the sovereignty and
integrity of India or public order, reasonable restrictions on the exercise of the right conferred by the said
sub-clause.
(4) Nothing in sub-clause (c) of the said clause shall affect the operation of any existing law in so far
as it imposes, or prevent the State from making any law imposing, in the interests of the sovereignty and
integrity of India or public order or morality, reasonable restrictions on the exercise of the right conferred
by the said sub-clause.
(5) Nothing in sub-clauses (d) and (e) of the said clause shall affect the operation of any existing law
in so far as it imposes, or prevent the State from making any law imposing, reasonable restrictions on the
exercise of any of the rights conferred by the said sub-clauses either in the interests of the general public
or for the protection of the interests of any Scheduled Tribe.
(6) Nothing in sub-clause (g) of the said clause shall affect the operation of any existing law in so far
as it imposes, or prevent the State from making any law imposing, in the interests of the general public,
reasonable restrictions on the exercise of the right conferred by the said sub-clause, and, in particular,
nothing in the said sub-clause shall affect the operation of any existing law in so far as it relates to, or
prevent the State from making any law relating to,—
(i) the professional or technical qualifications necessary for practising any profession or carrying
on any occupation, trade or business, or
(ii) the carrying on by the State, or by a corporation owned or controlled by the State, of any
trade, business, industry or service, whether to the exclusion, complete or partial, of citizens or
otherwise.
20. Protection in respect of conviction for offences.—(1) No person shall be convicted of any
offence except for violation of a law in force at the time of the commission of the Act charged as an
offence, nor be subjected to a penalty greater than that which might have been inflicted under the law in
force at the time of the commission of the offence.
(2) No person shall be prosecuted and punished for the same offence more than once.
(3) No person accused of any offence shall be compelled to be a witness against himself.
21. Protection of life and personal liberty.—No person shall be deprived of his life or personal
liberty except according to procedure established by law.
1

[21A. Right to education.—The State shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of
the age of six to fourteen years in such manner as the State may, by law, determine.]
22. Protection against arrest and detention in certain cases.—(1) No person who is arrested shall
be detained in custody without being informed, as soon as may be, of the grounds for such arrest nor shall
he be denied the right to consult, and to be defended by, a legal practitioner of his choice.

1. Ins. by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act, 2002, s. 2 (w.e.f. 1-4-2010).

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